SEOMoz was generous enough to post a free guide for people who want to learn SEO.
Its pretty good and I think its a great starting point for all people who want to start learning about SEO.
The Introduction is very apt and awesome.
Chapter 1 explains the way search engines work.
Chapter 2 explains how users interact with search engines through search terms a.k.a. search queries.
Chapter 3 explains the necessity of search engine marketing.
Chapter 4 details out the best practices for designing and developing a search engine friendly website.
Chapter 5 explains the intricacies of keyword research and targeting.
Chapter 6 explains how usability, user experience and content help in search engine rankings.
Chapter 7 explains about links and link building practices.
Chapter 8 tells you about the tools and services you should be aware as a SEO.
Chapter 9 breaks the myths that surround search engines.
Measuring is an integral part of any campaign. SEO is not an exception. Chapter 10 delves into the measurement metrics.